Causes[ change change source ] In the beginning of the 16th century, many events led to the Protestant reformation. Clergy abuse caused people to begin criticizing the Catholic Church. The greed and scandalous lives of the clergy had created a split between them and the peasants.
Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz Utraquist Hussitism was allowed there alongside the Roman Catholic confession.
By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now. Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity — excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church.
Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century.
The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia.
Martin Luther and the beginning[ edit ] See also: The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatoryparticular judgmentand the authority of the pope.
He would later in the period — write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Marythe intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and good works.
Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate. Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists.
Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanismsometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches.
After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism ; both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo.
Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others. Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe.
In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution. The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. From onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.Reasons for the Success of Lutheranism in the Holy Roman Empire Pre Social, Economic and Political Conditions Heavy taxes from Papacy caused resentment from Princes and ruling class who thought the taxes should be theirs.
This was closely associated with an increase in German nationalism. Anticlericalism was a feature in all levels of society. The clergy were exempt from taxes and had many . Also, “it starts to look like me and the feminists” should be “looks like I”.
And “untitled” doesn’t really make sense. And if biology is a hard science, it’s . What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Germany that contributed to the enormous success of Lutheranism? What were the religious and political implications of Luther's reforms?
Why did the Holy Roman Empire, Charles V, in collaboration with the Pope, issue the Edict of Worms in ? Analyze the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding the reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices.
The Protestant Reformation began the Thirty's Year War, the Catholic or Counter Reformation ended this pointless war.
Luther spoke eloquently in the common man's language while the Church held to the Latin. Printing allowed the rapid dissemination of ideas.
All this contributes to the success of the reformation. The great Catholic historian Lord Acton () claimed that if the Catholic church had been headed by a pope willing to reform to preserve the unity of the church, even Luther might have been reconciled.
Luther’s ablest associate, Philip Melanchthon (), was a moderate and a humanist.