Functions of the Nervous System To carry out its normal role, the nervous system has three overlapping functions. Much like a sentry, it uses its millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body; these changes are called stimuli, and the gathered information is called sensory input. Interpretation of sensory input.
They are hereditary and are a common feature of the species and often of the genus. Reflexes include not only such simple acts as chewing, swallowing, blinking, the knee jerk, and the scratch reflex, but also stepping, standing, and mating.
Built up into complex patterns of many coordinated muscular actions, reflexes form the basis of much instinctive behaviour in animals. Humans also exhibit a variety of innate reflexes, which are involved with the adjustment of the musculature for optimum performance of the distance receptors i.
Among the innate reflexes involving just the eyesfor example, are: In its simplest form, a reflex is viewed as a function of an idealized mechanism called the reflex arc. The primary components of the reflex arc are the sensory-nerve cells or receptor s that receive stimulation, in turn connecting to other nerve cells that activate muscle cells or effectorswhich perform the reflex action.
In most cases, however, the basic physiological mechanism behind a reflex is more complicated than the reflex arc theory would suggest. Additional nerve cells capable of communicating with other parts of the body beyond the receptor and effector are present in reflex circuits.
As a result of the integrative action of the nervous system in higher organisms, behaviour is more than the simple sum of their reflexes; it is a unitary whole that exhibits coordination between many individual reflexes and is characterized by flexibility and adaptability to circumstances.
Many automatic, unconditioned reflex es can thus be modified by or adapted to new stimuli, making possible the conditioning of reflex responses. The experiments of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlovfor example, showed that if an animal salivates at the sight of food while another stimulus, such as the sound of a bell, occurs simultaneously, the sound alone can induce salivation after several trials.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Advanced nervous system physiology. Health and medicine. Advanced nervous system physiology. Lessons. Functions of the nervous system.
Muscle stretch reflex. Autonomic nervous system. Upper motor neurons. Somatosensory tracts. Cerebral cortex. Neural cells and neurotransmitters. Study Exercise Human Reflex Physiology flashcards taken from the book Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual.
Sign in. IT IS AN IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOK FOR ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. IT HELPS TO INDICATE DEGENERATION OR PATHOLOGY OF PORTIONS OF THE NERVES, OR CAN HELP PIN POINT AN AREA OF A .
Aug 08, · The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to other portions of the body, along with sensory receptors and ganglia. A nerve consists of axons that are bound together by connective tissue. Motor nerves contain mostly axons of motor neurons; sensory /5(56).
Mar 30, · We follow up last week's tour of the central nervous system with a look at your peripheral nervous system, its afferent and efferent divisions, how it processes information, the reflex arc, and.
The mammillary bodies, reflex centers involved in olfaction Physiology of the Nervous System. The physiology of the nervous system involves a complex journey of impulses.
Practice Quiz: Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology. Here’s a item quiz about the study guide. nervous system: The Nervous System and Reflexes In general, nerve function is dependent on both sensory and motor fibers, sensory stimulation evoking motor response.
Even the autonomic system is activated by sensory impulses from receptors in .