Free African Transition Zone Essays These are sample african transition zone essays contributed by students around the world.
Men with grazing anmals would play an instrument to pass lonely hours Hunters would play after a successful kill. The first is the use of repetition as an organizing Jola initiation ritual essay.
For example, in the mbira music of the Shona people of Zimbabwe, a repeated pattern is established by the interaction of various parts, and the musician develops an improvisation out of this core pattern.
The second common characteristic is polyphony the simultaneous combination of several distinct musical parts. African music also has a conversational quality, in which different voices, instrumental parts, or even the parts of a single player are brought into lively exchange. One of the most common types of music making is call-and-response singing, in which a chorus repeats a fixed refrain in alternation with a lead singer, who has more freedom to improvise.
There are many different modes of expression in African music.
In West Africa, drum ensembles consisting of three to five musicians who play interlocking patterns are common. In the ensemble, each drummer uses a special method of striking the drum head to produce varying pitches and timbres distinctive sounds also known as tone colors to distinguish the drum from all the others.
Such ensembles often include rattles and an iron bell, which is struck with a stick to produce a repeated pattern called a timeline.
This pattern penetrates the dense texture of the ensemble and helps the drummers to play their patterns at the correct time. In the akadindaxylophone music of the Baganda, two groups of three players each face one another across one xylophone.
The first group plays a repeated pattern in octaves, and the second group fills in the missing beats with an interlocking pattern. The resulting tempo may approach beats per minute. In eastern, central, and southern Africa, groups of musicians play sets of stopped flutes or trumpets, each person contributing a single note in strict rotations with the others.
The alternation of the parts creates a rich polyphonic texture. This kind of ensemble technique, sometimes called hocketting, was described by European observers as early as the 15th century. Hocketting also plays an important role in the music of the San people of the Kalahari Desert and the Pygmies of the central African rain forests.
Among the southern African peoples, polyphony is most highly developed in vocal music. In traditional Zulu choral music, individual voices enter at different points in a continuous cycle, overlapping in a complex and constantly shifting texture.
The same technique may be used in solo vocal performances, during which a singer will jump from one entrance point to another to create a polyphonic texture. A wide variety of vocal qualities are used in African music, and it is common for sound-producing objects, such as jingles, rattles, and membranes made of spider web, to be attached to instruments to produce a "sizzling" effect.
Drums are among the more popular instruments and are made in a variety of shapes and sizes. A Drum is also called a Membranophone, which is any musical instrument that produces a sound from a stretched membrane that resonates to produce a sound. Materials such as wood, gourds, and clay are used to construct drum shells.
Drum membranes are made from the skins of reptiles, cows, goats, and other animals. Important types of drums include drum-chimes, in which a set of drums tuned to a scale is mounted in a frame and played by a team of drummers; friction drums, in which sound is produced by rubbing the membrane; and the West African hourglass-shaped tension drum, which is sometimes called a talking drum because it can be used to imitate the tonal contours of the Yoruba language of Nigeria.
As the drum itself is played, it is possible to make the drum talk the language of Yoruba. Other important percussion instruments in African music include clap-sticks, bells, rattles, slit gongs, struck gourds and clay pots, stamping tubes, and xylophones.
These are all types of Idiophones, which are musical instruments that resonates as a whole without the use of a membrane or string.This is a traditional costume that they wear in Cameroon during a type of initiation. Tradition is important and a big part of culture, especially in western Africa.
Cautions on essay my house Steel and aluminum can be used to make amazing art pieces. a skeleton dancer takes part in an ancient ritual. This culture is under threat from.
Jola Initiation Ritual Essay Words | 23 Pages Jola Initiation Ritual The phenomenon of folkloric festivals and cultural identity in the contemporary Senegal region of the Casamance provides a unique opportunity to experience and describe customs that have dictated creative and functional experiences for over a thousand years in the western.
Mar 02, · Demonstration of the bravery of the elders Multicoloured ritual masks and necklaces Future initiates after shaving Boukout (also called bukut or futampaf) is a Jola rite of passage practiced in Ziguinchor, Senegal.
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The sso ritual is much-feared by Beti boys as it involves a series of tests to mark a boy's passage into manhood. Modern Pop Music. Ongos are used in ceremonies and rituals, including adolescent initiation rites, in polyphonic ensembles of eighteen trumpets.