If information wants to be free, why are textbooks so expensive? Stars and Stripes, Justice Dept. After reading this chapter, you should know the following:
Its membership had grown from an original 51 states to more than… History and development Despite the problems encountered by the League of Nations in arbitrating conflict and ensuring international peace and security prior to World War IIthe major Allied powers agreed during the war to establish a new global organization to help manage international affairs.
This agreement was first articulated when U. The name United Nations was originally used to denote the countries allied against GermanyItalyand Japan.
On January 1,26 countries signed the Declaration by United Nationswhich set forth the war aims of the Allied powers.
The United Statesthe United Kingdomand the Soviet Union took the lead in designing the new organization and determining its decision-making structure and functions. The Soviet Union demanded individual membership and voting rights for its constituent republics, and Britain wanted assurances that its colonies would not be placed under UN control.
Although the four countries agreed on the general purpose, structure, and function of a new world organization, the conference ended amid continuing disagreement over membership and voting.
At the Yalta Conferencea meeting of the Big Three in a Crimean resort city in FebruaryRoosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin laid the basis for charter provisions delimiting the authority of the Security Council.
Moreover, they reached a tentative accord on the number of Soviet republics to be granted independent memberships in the UN. Finally, the three leaders agreed that the new organization would include a trusteeship system to succeed the League of Nations mandate system.
The San Francisco conference was attended by representatives of 50 countries from all geographic areas of the world: Poland, which was not present at the conference, was permitted to become an original member of the UN.
Security Council veto power among the permanent members was affirmed, though any member of the General Assembly was able to raise issues for discussion.
Other political issues resolved by compromise were the role of the organization in the promotion of economic and social welfare; the status of colonial areas and the distribution of trusteeships; the status of regional and defense arrangements; and Great Power dominance versus the equality of states.
Organization and administration Principles and membership The purposes, principles, and organization of the United Nations are outlined in the Charter. The essential principles underlying the purposes and functions of the organization are listed in Article 2 and include the following: Article 2 also stipulates a basic long-standing norm that the organization shall not intervene in matters considered within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.
Although this was a major limitation on UN action, over time the line between international and domestic jurisdiction has become blurred.
New members are admitted to the UN on the recommendation of the Security Council and by a two-thirds vote of the General Assembly. Often, however, the admittance of new members has engendered controversy.
By only 9 of 31 applicants had been admitted to the organization.
In the 10th Assembly proposed a package deal that, after modification by the Security Council, resulted in the admission of 16 new states 4 eastern European communist states and 12 noncommunist countries.
Vietnam was admitted inafter the defeat of South Vietnam and the reunification of the country in The two Koreas were admitted separately in Following worldwide decolonization from to40 new members were admitted, and by the end of the s there were about members of the UN.
Another significant increase occurred after —90, when many former Soviet republics gained their independence. By the early 21st century the UN comprised nearly member states.
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