Two years later, he defined Dostoevsky as the only psycholo- gist from whom he had anything to learn. The second, metaphorical encounter between Nietzsche and Dostoevsky happened on the verge of nihilism. Nietzsche announced the death of God, whereas Dostoevsky warned against the danger of atheism. This book describes the double encounter between Nietzsche and Dostoevsky.
Biography[ edit ] Karl Jaspers in Jaspers was born in Oldenburg in to a mother from a local farming community, and a jurist father. It soon became clear that Jaspers did not particularly enjoy law, and he switched to studying medicine in with a thesis about criminology.
Jaspers became dissatisfied with the way the medical community of the time approached the study of mental illness and gave himself the task of improving the psychiatric approach. In Jaspers habilitated at the philosophical faculty of the Heidelberg University and gained there in a post as a psychology teacher.
The post later became a permanent philosophical one, and Jaspers never returned to clinical practice. During this time Jaspers was a close friend of the Weber family Max Weber also having held a professorship at Heidelberg. He became a philosopher, in Germany and Europe.
In he fell under a publication ban as well. Many of his long-time friends stood by him, however, and he was able to continue his studies and research without being totally isolated.
But he and his wife were under constant threat of removal to a concentration camp until 30 Marchwhen Heidelberg was liberated by American troops. He published a paper in in which he addressed the problem of whether paranoia was an aspect of personality or the result of biological changes.
Although it did not broach new ideas, this article introduced a rather unusual method of study, at least according to the norms then prevalent. Not unlike FreudJaspers studied patients in detail, giving biographical information about the patients as well as notes on how the patients themselves felt about their symptoms.
This has become known as the biographical method and now forms a mainstay of psychiatric and above all psychotherapeutic practice.
Allgemeine Psychopathologie, first print Jaspers set down his views on mental illness in a book which he published inGeneral Psychopathology.
In Heidegger, it affords a view of Being in its totality; in Kierkegaard an approach to that inwardness indispensable to authentic religious experience; for Dostoevsky, Kafka, and Rilke the existential situation bears the stamp of modern man’s alienation, uprootedness, and absurdity; to Sartre it has vast ethical and political implications.4/5(1). Dostoevsky planned to write two novels: the first was The Brothers Karamazov and the second was intended to be the main novel, dedicated to the activities of Aliosha, the youngest of the three Karamazov brothers. Jun 14, · In the end, Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre is not a work to be studied in detail. A selection only, each writer’s works can be found in full and analyzed to the nth degree in myriad other published works—Nietzsche alone perhaps able to generate a library. More discursive than analytical, the book is intended for those with an interest in the subject but who are not involved in.
For example, in diagnosing a hallucinationit is more important to note that a person experiences visual phenomena when no sensory stimuli account for them, than to note what the patient sees.
What the patient sees is the "content", but the discrepancy between visual perception and objective reality is the "form".
He argued that clinicians should not consider a belief delusional based on the content of the belief, but only based on the way in which a patient holds such a belief. See delusion for further discussion. Jaspers also distinguished between primary and secondary delusions.
He defined primary delusions as autochthonous, meaning that they arise without apparent cause, appearing incomprehensible in terms of a normal mental process. This is a slightly different use of the word autochthonous than the ordinary medical or sociological use as a synonym for indigenous.
Jaspers considered primary delusions to be ultimately "un-understandable," since he believed no coherent reasoning process existed behind their formation. This view has caused some controversy, and the likes of R. Laing and Richard Bentallp.
Contributions to philosophy and theology[ edit ] Most commentators associate Jaspers with the philosophy of existentialismin part because he draws largely upon the existentialist roots of Nietzsche and Kierkegaardand in part because the theme of individual freedom permeates his work.
In Philosophy 3 vols,Jaspers gave his view of the history of philosophy and introduced his major themes. Beginning with modern science and empiricism, Jaspers points out that as we question reality, we confront borders that an empirical or scientific method simply cannot transcend.
At this point, the individual faces a choice: In making this leap, individuals confront their own limitless freedom, which Jaspers calls Existenzand can finally experience authentic existence. Mystic Christian traditions influenced Jaspers himself tremendously, particularly those of Meister Eckhart and of Nicholas of Cusa.
He also took an active interest in Eastern philosophies, particularly Buddhismand developed the theory of an Axial Agea period of substantial philosophical and religious development.
See Myth and Christianity: An Inquiry into the Possibility of Religion without Myth - a debate between Jaspers and Bultmann, The Noonday Press, New York, [ citation needed ] Jaspers wrote extensively on the threat to human freedom posed by modern science and modern economic and political institutions.
A Warning from History: To forget it is guilt. It must be continually remembered. It was possible for this to happen, and it remains possible for it to happen again at any minute. Only in knowledge can it be prevented. However, he also wrote shorter works, most notably, Philosophy is for Everyman.
He strongly opposed totalitarian despotism and warned about the increasing tendency towards technocracyor a regime that regards humans as mere instruments of science or of ideological goals.
He was also skeptical of majoritarian democracy. Thus, he supported a form of governance that guaranteed individual freedom and limited government yet was rooted in authentic tradition and guided by an intellectual elite.
Next to Nietzsche, or rather, prior to Nietzsche, I consider him to be the most important thinker of our post-Kantian age.Existentialism also derived inspiration from major works of literature: Dostoevsky’s “Notes from Underground,” Tolstoy’s “The Death of Ivan Ilych,” and Flaubert’s Madame Bovary became indispensable points of reference.
One of the classic anthologies in the field provides complete works dealing with key themes of modern reflections on existence. Includes milestone essays, poems, and stories by Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rilke, Kafka, Jaspers, Heidegger, Sartre, and Camus. Essay about Dostoevsky and Nietzsche's Overman Words | 9 Pages.
Dostoevsky and Nietzsche's Overman The definition of übermensch, or overman, in Barron's Concise Student's Encyclopedia makes anyone who has read Nietzsche's Zarathustra - even aphoristically, as I tried to do at first - cringe. This volume provides basic writings of Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rilke, Kafka, Ortega, Jaspers, Heidegger, Sartre, and Camus, including some not previously translated, along with an invaluable introductory essay by Walter Kaufmann.5/5(5).
Daniel Leonard Existentialism Dr. Brahinsky March 27, Trev, wake up! Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Jaspers write of many important issues concerning our existence and society in general, but the one that interests me the most is the belief in the ignorance and stupidity of th.
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