Punjab comes from the Persian words panj five and ab river and means "Land of the Five Rivers. The Punjab is an ancient center of culture in the Indian subcontinent. It lay within the bounds of the Harappan civilization, the sophisticated urban city-based culture that flowered in the Indus Valley during the third millennium BC.
These scholars  claim that both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Significant deviations in birth sex ratios from the normal range can only be explained by manipulation, that is sex-selective abortion.
Sen pointed to research that had shown that if men and women receive similar nutritional and medical attention and good health care then females have better survival rates, and it is the male which is the genetically fragile sex. Most families find greater utility in having a son so the curves are higher up on the y axis.
When having a female becomes more expensive due to dowry prices, lack of financial return in the future, educational and health expenses then the budget curve has to swing inward on the x axis.
Even though the budget stays the same, it is relatively more expensive to have a girl than to have a boy. The substitution effect shows that people move from point A on the first indifference curve to point B on the second indifference curve.
They move from an already low number of females due to social reasons to even fewer daughters than before due to the added financial liability of daughters being more expensive.
The number of males grows and the contrasting increase and decrease in quantities results in a high sex ratio. This is based on the unitary model of the household where the household is seen as a single decision making entity under the same budget constraint.
This is not to say that all households follow this model, but enough of them do that it results in a high sex ratio. The data suggests the existence of high sex ratios before and after the arrival of ultrasound-based prenatal care and sex screening technologies in India.
Female foeticide has been linked to the arrival, in the early s, of affordable ultrasound technology and its widespread adoption in India. Obstetric ultrasonographyeither transvaginally or transabdominally, checks for various markers of fetal sex. It can be performed at or after week 12 of pregnancy.
One group estimates more than 10 million female foetuses may have been illegally aborted in India since s, andgirls were being lost annually due to female foeticide.
Culture is favored by some researchers,  while some favor disparate gender-biased access to resources. Generally, male babies were preferred because they provided manual labor and success the family lineage. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where cultural norms value male children over female children for a variety of social and economic reasons.
Female foeticide then, is a continuation in a different form, of a practice of female infanticide or withholding of postnatal health care for girls in certain households. As MacPherson notes, there can be significant differences in gender violence and access to food, healthcare, immunizations between male and female children.
This leads to high infant and childhood mortality among girls, which causes changes in sex ratio. Specifically, poorer families are sometimes forced to ration food, with daughters typically receiving less priority than sons Klasen and Wink However, globally, resources are not always allocated equitably.
Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world. The majority of men do not find any benefit from these goods and are less likely to invest in them.
In Rajasthan, where women complain more often about drinking water, women politicians invest more in water and less in roads. It is often found in "socially stratified, monogamous societies that are economically complex and where women have a relatively small productive role".
The outcome is pareto optimal and reaches equilibrium when no one can be better off with any other partner or choosing not to marry. However, if both partners do not share an equal distribution of the returns then there must be a transfer of funds between them in order to reach efficiency.
Therefore, women and their families have to compete for men and pay a dowry as a transaction payment to make up for the lack of productive inputs they bring into a marriage. The power hierarchy and financial obligation created through this system help perpetuate acts like female foeticide and a high son preference.
Additionally, the technological progress leading to sex selective abortions lowers the cost of discrimination and many people think that it is better to pay a " rupees now abortion instead of 50, rupees in the future dowry. In India, there is a very limited social security system so parents look to their sons to ensure their futures and care for them in old age.
Additionally, they do not contribute economically to the family wealth and are costly because of the dowry system.
This also ties to the fact that it is easier for men in India to get high paying jobs and provide financially for their families. Consequences of a declining sex ratio in Indian states[ edit ] Census sex ratio map for the states and Union Territories of India, boys per girls in 0 to 1 age group.Punjab Province in Pakistan includes just about all of the Punjab (West Punjab) that was assigned to Pakistan in The Indian Punjab State (East Punjab) extended from the international border with Pakistan to Delhi.
Love Punjab is a Punjabi film directed by Rajiv Dhingra, written by Amberdeep Singh and starring Amrinder Gill, Sargun Mehta and Manvir Johal as the main protagonists of the film.
This film is about a journey of a family to find love, ties of families and fragrance of . What causes an abnormal hunger in a child? It could be a growth spurt, when your kid needs a lot of nutrients for a healthy body (if you think they are bottomless, they have to get filled some time).
Love Punjab - Movie. 6, likes · 88 talking about this. 11 March Worldwide. Sep 09, · A true love story of punjab/nabha boy and out of india girl/must watch and share. A true love story of punjab/nabha boy and out of india girl/must watch and share Partition Punjab It is so normal to expect a married woman to not only look after her husband but his family as well.
And, I, the ‘abnormal one’, questioned this arrangement.