Early history[ edit ] Old Russian literature consists of several masterpieces written in the Old Russian language i. The main type of Old Russian historical literature were chroniclesmost of them anonymous. Life of Alexander Nevsky offers a well-known example.
Though modern feminism was nonexistent, many women expressed themselves and exposed the conditions that they faced, albeit often indirectly, using a variety of subversive and creative methods.
The social structure of sixteenth century Europe allowed women limited opportunities for involvement; they served largely as managers of their households. Women were expected to focus on practical domestic pursuits and activities that encouraged the betterment of their families, and more particularly, their husbands.
In most cases education for women was not advocated—it was thought to be detrimental to the traditional female virtues of innocence and morality.
Women who spoke out against the patriarchal system of gender roles, or any injustice, ran the risk of being exiled from their communities, or worse; vocal unmarried women in particular were the targets of witch-hunts.
Anne Hutchinson, who challenged the authority of Puritan clergy, was excommunicated for her outspoken views and controversial actions. Anne Askew, a well-educated, out-spoken English Protestant, was tried for heresy in ; her denial of transubstantiation was grounds for her imprisonment.
She was eventually burned at the stake for her refusal to incriminate other Protestant court ladies. Elizabeth I ascended to the throne ina woman who contradicted many of the gender roles of the age.
She was well educated, having studied a variety of subjects including mathematics, foreign language, politics, and history.
Elizabeth was an outspoken but widely respected leader, known for her oratory skills as well as her patronage of the arts. Despite the advent of the age of print, the literacy rate during this period remained low, though the Bible became more readily available to the lower classes.
Religious study, though restricted to "personal introspection," was considered an acceptable pursuit for women, and provided them with another context within which they could communicate their individual ideas and sentiments.
In addition to religious material, women of this period often expressed themselves through the ostensibly private forms of letters and autobiographies.
The seventeenth century was not an era of drastic changes in the status or conditions of women. Women continued to play a significant, though not acknowledged, role in economic and political structures through their primarily domestic activities.
Again, women who challenged societal norms and prejudices risked their lives—Mary Dyer was hanged for repeatedly challenging the Massachusetts law that banished Quakers from the colony.
Though their influence was often denigrated, women participated in various community activities. For example, women were full members of English guilds; guild records include references to "brethern and sistern" and "freemen and freewomen.
The eighteenth century brought the beginning of the British cultural revolution. The economic changes brought by the new middle class provided women with the opportunity to be more directly involved in commerce.
Lower-to middle-class women often assisted their husbands in work outside the home. It was still thought unseemly for a lady to be knowledgeable of business so, though some class distinctions were blurring, the upper class was able to distinguish themselves from the rest of society. The rise in consumerism allowed the gentry to place a greater emphasis on changing fashion and "display," further distancing them from the middleclass.
With the advent of changes in rules of fashion and acceptable mores within society, some women established a literary niche writing etiquette guides. Also due to the cultural revolution, mounting literacy rates among the lower classes caused an increase in publishing, including the rise of the periodical.
Men and women of all classes found new means to express ideas in the wider publishing community. The act of professional writing, however, was still considered "vulgar" among the aristocracy. Significant colonial expansion during this period provided would-be writers with unique subject matter—letters written by women abroad discussed foreign issues and culture, and offered a detailed view of far-off lands.
These letters were often circulated among members of an extended family, as well as in the larger community. Women such as Wollstonecraft advocated access to education for women that was equal to that of their male counterparts.
Marriage laws, which overwhelmingly favored men, also spurred public debate, though little was accomplished to reform laws during this period. Throughout the world, women took action to advance their political and social rights.
Catherine continued to rule in an unconventional, independent manner, withdrawing from the men who made her ascension possible and remaining unmarried to ensure her power. Catherine was a shrewd politician, and used wide public support to enact laws that significantly altered the Russian political system.
In France, Olympe de Gouges demanded equal rights for women in the new French Republic, and was eventually executed by guillotine in Madame Roland, who also met an untimely death ininfluenced revolutionary politicians and thinkers during the French Revolution through her famous salon.
Phillis Wheatley, an African-American slave, examined slavery and British imperialism in her poetry, and became a notable figure among abolitionists in America and abroad. Increasingly, women rebuked traditional roles and spoke out against the social and political inequalities they faced.
The century closed with the deaths of visionaries such as Mary Wollstonecraft and Catherine the Great, and the births of a new breed of female writers and scholars.Another religious movement that was the antithesis of evangelicalism made its appearance in the eighteenth century.
Deism, which emphasized morality and rejected the orthodox Christian view of the divinity of Christ, found advocates among upper-class Americans.
Conspicuous among them were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams.
From CIA World Fact Book. History. Prior to the arrival of the English, New Zealand was discovered by the Maori, who were believed to have arrived in New Zealand from .
Two significant earthquakes in the Rhine Valley at the end of the 18th century: The events of December 6, and April 20, Comparison of the two historic events with recent instrumental.
Earthquakes as God’s punisment in 17th and 18th century Spain Agustín Udías, Universidad Complutense, Madrid Abstract It is generally believed that earthquakes before the Entlightenment were considered as signs of the wrath of God as punishment for men’s sins and were not considered as natural occurrences until modern times.
18th century and whose effects were more strong- responses to each of the three earthquakes, whose comparison allows a better understanding of specific aspects giving up the religious ones.
A 21st century, secular interpretation of the book of Revelation “Now, even though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other, nevertheless there exist between the two strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies.