Decentre Jean Piaget argued that to decentre is to be able to take into account more than one aspect of a situation at a time. According to Piaget, this type of thinking was typical of a child in the pre-operational stage.
Behavior Behavior refers to the movement of some part of an organism that changes some aspect of the environment.
Operant conditioning Operant behavior is the so-called "voluntary" behavior that is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences. Specifically, operant conditioning refers to the three-term contingency that uses stimulus controlin particular an antecedent contingency called the discriminative stimulus SD that influences the strengthening or weakening of behavior through such consequences as reinforcement or punishment.
Respondent classical conditioning[ edit ] Main article: Classical conditioning Respondent classical conditioning is based on innate stimulus-response relationships called reflexes.
In his famous experiments with dogs, Pavlov usually used the salivary reflex, namely salivation unconditioned response following the taste of food unconditioned stimulus.
Pairing a neutral stimulus, for example a bell conditioned stimulus with food caused the bell to elicit salivation conditioned response.
Thus, in classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus becomes a signal for a biologically significant consequence. Note that in respondent conditioning, unlike operant conditioning, the response does not produce a reinforcer or punisher e. Environment[ edit ] The environment is the entire constellation of stimuli in which an organism exists.
A stimulus is an "energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells". Topographically by its physical features. Temporally by when it occurs. Functionally by its effect on behavior.
Reinforcement Reinforcement is the key element in operant conditioning  and in most behavior change programs. If a behavior is followed closely in time by a stimulus and this results in an increase in the future frequency of that behavior, then the stimulus is a positive reinforcer.
If the removal of an event serves as a reinforcer, this is termed negative reinforcement. Punishment psychology Punishment is a process by which a consequence immediately follows a behavior which decreases the future frequency of that behavior.
As with reinforcement, a stimulus can be added positive punishment or removed negative punishment. Broadly, there are three types of punishment: Extinction procedures are often preferred over punishment procedures, as many punishment procedures are deemed unethical and in many states prohibited.
Nonetheless, extinction procedures must be implemented with utmost care by professionals, as they are generally associated with extinction bursts. These novel behaviors are a core component of shaping procedures.
Discriminated operant and three-term contingency[ edit ] In addition to a relation being made between behavior and its consequences, operant conditioning also establishes relations between antecedent conditions and behaviors. In other words, the relation between a behavior B and its context A is because of consequences Cmore specifically, this relationship between AB because of C indicates that the relationship is established by prior consequences that have occurred in similar contexts.
A behavior which occurs more frequently in the presence of an antecedent condition than in its absence is called a discriminated operant. The antecedent stimulus is called a discriminative stimulus SD.
The fact that the discriminated operant occurs only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus is an illustration of stimulus control. These conditions have been referred to variously as "Setting Event", "Establishing Operations", and "Motivating Operations" by various researchers in their publications.
Skinner's classification system of behavior analysis has been applied to treatment of a host of communication disorders. Tact psychology — a verbal response evoked by a non-verbal antecedent and maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement.
Mand psychology — behavior under control of motivating operations maintained by a characteristic reinforcer. Intraverbals — verbal behavior for which the relevant antecedent stimulus was other verbal behavior, but which does not share the response topography of that prior verbal stimulus e.
Autoclitic — secondary verbal behavior which alters the effect of primary verbal behavior on the listener.Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.
It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or basic experimental research).
Conditioning Learning is a process in psychology that is used to enforce new behavior in an organism.
There are two major types of conditioning learning. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning These forms of conditioning learning have both similarities and differences. Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses her with the word mother instead of the word professor or doctor.
Dr. Bogdarian applies the principles of _____, and hypothesizes the student misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. 7, Num. 2, December 71 Analysis of English Cognitive Direct Method from the Perspective of Knowledge Management.
Three theories of learning are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and the social learning theory. Each of these different theories has a unique and different approach.
Classical conditioning is simply learning by associate of two different stimuli. Return to Contents. The T.O.T.E. model. In NLP, the process of recursion and assembly of complex behaviors and actions (and even simpler actions) is described in terms of the TOTE model.