Print this page The descriptions that follow are not standards themselves but instead offer a portrait of students who meet the standards set out in this document. As students advance through the grades and master the standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, they are able to exhibit with increasing fullness and regularity these capacities of the literate individual. Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary.
Need[ edit ] Increasing globalization has created a great need for people in the workforce who can communicate in multiple languages.
Common languages are used in areas such as trade, tourism, international relations, technology, media, and science.
However, some countries such as IndiaSingaporeMalaysiaPakistanand the Philippines use a second official language in their governments. According to GAOChina has recently been putting enormous importance on foreign language learning, especially the English language.
History[ edit ] Ancient to medieval period[ edit 6 1 trait writing assessment kindergarten The need to learn foreign languages is as old as human history itself. John Amos Comenius was one of many people who tried to reverse this trend. He wrote a complete course for learning Latin, covering the entire school curriculum, culminating in his Opera Didactica Omnia, In this work, Comenius also outlined his theory of language acquisition.
He is one of the first theorists to write systematically about how languages are learned and about methods for teaching languages. He held that language acquisition must be allied with sensation and experience.
Teaching must be oral. The schoolroom should have models of things, or else pictures of them. He published the world's first illustrated children's book, Orbis sensualium pictus. The study of Latin gradually diminished from the study of a living language to a mere subject in the school curriculum.
This decline demanded a new justification for its study.
It was then claimed that the study of Latin developed intellectual ability, and the study of Latin grammar became an end in and of itself.
Advanced students continued grammar study with the addition of rhetoric. Based on the purely academic study of Latin, students of modern languages did much of the same exercises, studying grammatical rules and translating abstract sentences.
Oral work was minimal, and students were instead required to memorize grammatical rules and apply these to decode written texts in the target language.
This tradition-inspired method became known as the grammar-translation method. You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. November Learn how and when to remove this template message Henry Sweet was a key figure in establishing the applied linguistics tradition in language teaching Innovation in foreign language teaching began in the 19th century and became very rapid in the 20th century.
It led to a number of different and sometimes conflicting methods, each claiming to be a major improvement over the previous or contemporary methods. They worked on setting language teaching principles and approaches based on linguistic and psychological theories, but they left many of the specific practical details for others to devise.
Very few students in U. Even the "reading knowledge" required for a PhD degree is comparable only to what second-year language students read, and only very few researchers who are native English speakers can read and assess information written in languages other than English.
Even a number of famous linguists are monolingual. This tends to make the research of second language acquisition emotionally charged. Older methods and approaches such as the grammar translation method and the direct method are dismissed and even ridiculed, as newer methods and approaches are invented and promoted as the only and complete solution to the problem of the high failure rates of foreign language students.
Most books on language teaching list the various methods that have been used in the past, often ending with the author's new method. These new methods are usually presented as coming only from the author's mind, as the authors generally give no credence to what was done before and do not explain how it relates to the new method.
For example, descriptive linguists[ who?Edina Public Schools is a nationally recognized suburban public school district in Edina, Minnesota serving approximately 8, students. 6+1 Traits Of Writing.
16 “We must change Analytical Trait Model for Writing Assessment 1. Ideas 2. Organization 3. Voice 4. Word Choice 5. Sentence Fluency 6. Conventions +1 Presentation 6+1 Traits Of Writing. 20 Ideas • Clarity and control • Focused and relevant.
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Ann Arbor are main UK distributors for many USA based psychological assessment publishers. English Language Arts Standards» Introduction» Students Who are College and Career Ready in Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, & Language.
Process, product, and purpose. Curriculum-based assessment must start with an inspection of the curriculum. Many writing curricula are based on a conceptual model that takes into account process, product, and purpose.
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